Ang Droga sa Pilipinas at Pakikialam ng European Union at Amerika

Ang Droga sa Pilipinas at Pakikialam ng European Union at Amerika

Ni Apolinario Villalobos

 

Noong unang panahon…pinaghatian ng ilang bansa sa Europe ang buong mundo. Nag-unahan sila sa pagkamkam ng mga isla kahit may mga katutubo nang nanirahan sa mga ito. Kasama sa listahan ng mgangangamkam ang England, Holland, Russia, Germany, Hungary. Kabilang sa kanila ang mga bansa sa Mediterranean na tulad ng Espanya at Portugal na gumamit naman ng mapagkunwaring misyong ispirituwal na ang simbolo ay krus. Bandang huli na sumali ang Estador Unidos na binuo ng mga estadong nagbuklod-buklod. Ang mga “Amerikano” na bumuo ng malaking komunidad sa “New World” na ang bukana ay California, ay galing sa England, Pransiya, Germany, Holland at iba,  upang takasan ang paghihigpit at pagmamalupit ng kani-kanilang hari at reyna. Sa pangangamkam ng mga Amerikano sa dinayo nilang mga palanas at gubat ay naitaboy nila ang mga katutubo na tinawag nilang “Indian”. Ang tawag na yan ang popular na ginamit noong unang panahon sa pagtukoy sa mga katutubo ng mga kinamkam na mga isla….kasama na diyan ang mga katutubo sa kapuluan ng Pilipinas na tinawag na “Indio” ng mga Kastila.

 

Sa pag-usad ng panahon naging maunlad ang mga bansang mangangamkam dahil sa “industrialization” na ang pinaka-pundasyon o mitsa ay ang paggamit ng “fossil fuel” o mga panggatong na nakaimbak sa ilalim ng lupa tulad ng uling at langis. Dahil sa sobrang kasakiman ng mga mangangamkan, hindi nakontrol ang paggamit ng mga panggatong hanggang masira ang bahagi ng kalawakan na nagbibigay proteksiyon sa mundo (ozone layer) laban sa matinding init ng araw – napunit dahil sa carbon dioxide na ibinuga ng mga factory o pagawaan. Nadamay ang mga maliliit na bansang (third world countries) walang kamuwang-muwang sa “industrialization”. Sa kasamaang palad, ang mga “third world” countries na nagsisimula pa lang umarangkada ay ayaw nang pagamitin ng “fossil fuels” sa pamamagitan ng mga mapanlinlang na “treaties” o kasunduan sa pagitan nila at mga mangangamkam na malalaking bansa, upang mailigtas kuno ang kalikasan….ganoong ang mga hinayupak na mangangamkam na mga bansang ito ang sumira!

 

Hindi lang sa paggamit ng mga “fossil fuel” nakikialam ang malalaking bansang mangangamkam sa mga bansang maliliit lalo na ang mga nasa Timog-Silangang Asya, kundi pati na rin sa pagpapatakbo ng pamahalaan. Ang isang halimbawa ay ang pakikialam ng European Union sa mga ginagawa ni Duterte upang matigil ang droga sa Pilipinas. Ibinunyag ni Duterte na hindi na ligtas sa epekto ng droga ang gobyerno dahil maraming nagtatrabaho dito, lalo na sa hanay ng kapulisan ay lulong na rin sa droga. Ang mga barangay na siyang pinaka-pundasyon (foundation) ng lipunan ay nasa impluwensiya na rin ng bisyo dahil maraming Barangay Chairmen ay may kinalaman na rin dito.

 

Sa Europe ay okey lang na maglipana ang mga durogista dahil suportado ng gobyerno ang pagpapagamot, sa Pilipinas ay iba ang sitwasyon dahil gamot nga lang sa pagta-tae o LBM at lagnat ay mahal na…paano pa kung ang pag-uusapan ay mga rehab center na mga high-class na ospital lang ang mayroon…ang tinatawag nilang “basement”? Mabuti nga at sa pag-upo ni Duterte ay binigyan agad niya ang problemang ito ng pansin kaya may magagamit nang mga rehab centers sa Davao, Bukidnon at Nueva Ecija.

 

Malaking balakid sa pagbabago ng Piilipinas ang pakikialam ng European Union at Amerika na ang mga pinaghihinalaang “sulsol” ay mga Pilipino rin na natigil ang milyo-milyong kinikita nang maupo si Duterte!

 

Masasabing nagsanib-puwersa ang dalawang uri ng demonyo sa mundo – ang mangangamkam at mapaglinlang na mga mauunalad na bansa sa Europe, pati Amerika, at ang mga demonyong Pilipino na ang gusto ay patuloy na nabubuhay at pagala-gala sa Pilipinas ang mga adik, drug pusher at mga drug lords, pati mga corrupt sa gobyerno!

 

 

 

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The Various “Relationships”, Duterte, and the Philippines

THE VARIOUS “RELATIONSHIPS”, DUTERTE, AND THE PHILIPPINES

By Apolinario Villalobos

 

There are various kinds of relationship. One of these is based on simple friendship devoid of malice. Another is that which, though, started with the simple friendship, has developed into one with carnal desire for each other. There is also a relationship that started with flings for sexual release by those who are innately maniacal in their desire, but which could unfortunately affect others, just like what a woman, supposedly of respectable repute did, and whose nymphomanic desire resulted to scandalous and uncontrolled spread of illegal drugs.

 

As regards the relationship among nations, given foremost consideration is their kind of ideology that could be founded on the liberal Democracy or oppressive Communism. Another consideration is the people’s Faith, which could either be rooted in Christianity or Islam.

 

The Philippines has a varicolored and rich culture for having been tainted with those of other nations in the past that made the blood of other races flow through the veins of the Filipinos. In view, however, of the considerably long domination of Spain and America over the Philippines, their respective influence has left a deep impression on the image of the country, as viewed by the rest of the world. In this regard, a book on the spoken international language of different nations, listed the Philippines in the 1950’s as Spanish-speaking nation. When the Americans took over as colonizers, the Iberian language was supplanted with English which even attempted to dominate Tagalog, as it was forced on students while inside the school campus.

 

In view of the considerable length of domination by Spain, Catholicism was predominantly observed in the Philippines. When the Americans took over, many were converted into the different Protestant sects. As regards the government, the Philippines’s Constitution has been almost totally copied from that of America, except the form of governance. With that, America practically developed in the Philippines a seemingly total dependence toward her. This is how the nauseating referral to the Filipinos as “helpless little brown brothers” of the white Americans developed, with the latter viewing the former as helpless people who needed to be prevailed upon, reprimanded at all times, and if need be, disciplined with the rod…practically, held by the hand for proper guidance.

 

Further to the aforementioned long oppression of the Philippines, what has been culled in the mind of the Filipinos is the consciousness that no other religion is better than Catholicism, and no other government is better than what is copied from America. Ironically, the Philippines is lagging behind some of her Southeast Asian neighbors, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Vietnam , especially, on rice production despite the fact that their rice scientists and technologists developed their knowledge at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) which is in the Philippines! These nations admirably and successfully made leaps and bounds despite their having remained untainted by their colonizers, Great Britain and France. It should be noted, too, that these nations are not Christian, and one has even become a Communist!

 

Hecklers of Duterte call him “idiot”, blabber-mouthed, tactless, and many more, just because he wants to free the Philippines from the image of being shackled by America. His avowed advocacy to give the Philippines a new image in the eyes of the world, one that shows her standing on her two feet and free from the influence of any other nation has made Duterte the subject of contempt from all sides. But the big question now is: who among the past presidents has ever showed pro-Filipino or sincere nationalism that he is manifesting? Filipinos thought that Marcos was the right guy with his “New Society”, but he, unfortunately, got derailed when he became a dictator.

 

The vision of Duterte’s detractors seemed to be just limited to the American-owned Call Centers or BPO’s as they express their apprehension of virtual “famine” in the country if these would eventually pack up because of his anti-American pronouncements. On the contrary, how can these American investors leave the country where they are reaping financial returns beyond their expectation? Their relationship with the Filipinos who work for them, and who show sincerity in their job can be viewed as one which is symbiotic or an unwritten “give and take” system. What the detractors failed to notice still, is that, although, many American firms have already left the country in quest for cheaper labor in China, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, their exodus did not affect the economy of the Philippines, or to the very least…felt, as the Filipinos are known for their pliant flexibility and endurance.

 

Ang Joint Military Exercises at iba pang Mukha ng Panlalamang ng Amerika sa Pilipinas

ANG JOINT MILITARY EXERCISES AT IBA

PANG MUKHA NG PANLALAMANG NG AMERIKA SA PILIPINAS

Ni Apolinario Villalobos

 

Nang palitan ng Amerika ang Espanya bilang mananakop ng Pilipinas, marami ang nag-akalang bukal sa loob nito ang pagtulong sa mga Pilipino. Maliban sa Guam, ang Pilipinas ay hawak ng Amerika sa malawak na karagatang Pasipiko (Pacific). Pakiramdam ng Amerika ay “kuya” siya ng Pilipinas na sa tingin niya ay kawawa at nangangailangan ng tulong. Inabot ang Amerika sa Pilipinas ng WWII kaya naudlot ang dapat sana ay pagbigay ng kalayaan.

 

Kahit pa sinabing “malaya” na ang Pilipinas noong Commonwealth period, kontrolado pa rin ng Amerika ang Pilipinas. Ang Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas ay kailangang aprubahan ng presidente ng Amerika. Nakapaloob sa Saligang Batas ang “parity rights” na nagsasaad  ng karapatan ng mga Amerikano pagdating sa pamumuhunan sa negosyo at paggamit ng likas na yaman tulad ng kagubatan, minahan, karagatan. Yan ay sa kabila ng nakasaad pa rin sa Saligang Batas na 60% ang pag-aari ng mga Pilipino sa mga pamumuhunan.

 

Hindi tamang sabihin na maraming naitulong ang Amerika sa paggawa ng mga kalsada, tulay, mga gusali at iba pa noong kapanahunan nila. Ang mga ginawa ay naging dahilan upang magkaroon ng “pangangailangan” na bumili naman ang Pilipinas ng mga mamahaling kagamitan, trak, at iba  sa napakamahal na presyo upang magamit! Sinundan ng Amerika ang taktika sa pag-Americanize ng mga Pilipino upang maging “dependent” na nagresulta sa pagsira sa kultura, nang bumaha ang mga pelikulang Amerikano tungkol sa mga gangsterism at sex na nagpakita ng mga bisyo tulad ng paninigarilyo, paglalasing, pagpuputa o prostitution; mga pagkain na angkop lang sana sa panlasa ng mga Amerikano tulad ng hot dog at hamburger; at marami pang iba. Naging palasak ang paniniwalang kung hindi “stateside” ay hindi maganda.

 

Nagkaroon din ng batas noon na bawal magladlad o magwagayway ng bandila ng Pilipinas. Nang umalis ang mga Amerikano, iniwan ang mga base militar – ang Subic at Clark, kung saan ay mayabang na nakawagayway ang bandila ng Amerika. Nakakahiya, dahil sa ibang bansang mayroong base militar ang Amerika, ang nakawagayway ay bandila ng bansa kung saan nakatirik ang mga base militar nila! Mabuti na lang at naipilit ni Claro Recto ang katotohanang hindi pag-aari ng Amerika ang lupang kinatitirikan ng mga military facilities nila, kaya nagkaroon ng pagbabago sa kasunduan.

 

Nang magkaroon ng problema ang Pilipinas sa West Philippine Sea laban sa Tsina, walang ginawa ang Amerika dahil hindi daw saklaw ang isyung ito sa mutual defense act ng dalawang bansa. Kung hindi pa nagreklamo ang iba pang malalaking bansa tulad ng France at Great Britain, hindi pa nagpalabas ng “reklamo” ang Amerika. Ganoon pa man, malinaw na pagkukunwari lang ang pagrereklamo ng Amerika sa Tsina dahil wala rin naman itong magawa dahil sa laki ng utang nito sa mga Tsino.

 

Nagising sa katotohanang walang karapatan ang presidente ng Amerika sa pagsita o pagbulyaw sa presidente ng Pilipinas sa isyu ng “human rights” nang mamutawi sa mga bibig na Duterte ang maaanghang na salita laban kay Obama, lalo pa at ang “bakuran” nito ay namumutiktik ng mga kaso tungkol sa pang-aapi ng mga “puting” Amerikano sa mga “itim” na kababayan kuno nila.

 

Ang pag-aalala nina Robredo at Shahani na baka matigil ang tulong ng mga European countries at Amerika sa Pilipinas ay pagpapakita ng “colonial mentality”. Kung may mga tratado o treaty na nilagdaan ang Pilipinas at ibang bansa, hindi ito “one way” o para lang sa kapakinabangan ng Pilipinas dahil hindi tanga ang mga bansang ka-tratado upang magpalamang sa isang third world country tulad ng Pilipinas. Ang mga “aids” at “grants” ay mga utang na binabayaran ng Pilipinas. Ang mga tulong na binibigay nila kung may kalamidad nila ay “kusang –loob” at hindi hiningi. Nagpapadala din ang Pilipinas ng tulong kapag may kalamidad na nangyari sa kanila. Ang mga investments na nakikita ngayon sa Pilipinas ay galing sa Tsina, pati mga produktong bumabaha sa malls at palengke dahil pati toothpick at gulay ay galing sa Tsina.

 

Ang mga Pilipinong nakatira sa Amerika ay hindi dapat mag-alala dahil hindi naman sila palaboy sa bansang yan kundi nagkakayod-kalabaw upang kumita sa disenteng paraan, na nakakatulong pa sa pagpaunlad ng ekonomiya nito. Ang mga takot o nag-aalala ay mga sipsip at tamad na Pilipinong nagpapaka-Amerikano sa pagkain ng mga pagkain sa bansang yan na tadtad ng kemikal kaya lahat na lang sakit ay nadadanasan nila! Kung may plano silang habang -buhay na titira sa Amerika, huwang silang makialam sa Pilipinas ngayon sa pagdagdag ng paninira kay Duterte dahil nakakagulo lang sila! Kung maging turista sa Pilipinas ang mga sipsip na Pilipino ay hanggang mall lang naman sila o di kaya ay sa mga tourist spots. Pumunta kaya sila sa mga squatters’ area, tingnan ko lang kung magsasalita pa sila na animo ay dito sila nakatira at hindi sa Amerika!

 

Sana ay gayahin ng mga sipsip na Pinoy ang maraming Pilipino sa Amerika at iba pang bansa na may malalim na pang-unawa at bukas na kaisipan….at walang “colonial mentality”.

 

 

The Philippines, America and her CIA

THE PHILIPPINES, AMERICA AND HER CIA

(Blog/installment #1)

By Apolinario Villalobos

 

I found an interesting dual-titled book, “The Marcoses and the Making of American Policy/ Waltzing with A Dictator” by Raymond Bonner, in of all places – a junk shop! As I am no Marcos fan, I set it aside for a long time and came across it again when I was cleaning my files just recently. I even thought of selling it at a tempting price to a Marcos book collector. At first, I only literally browsed through it, but before reaching the mid-section of the 533-paged book, my attention caught the passages on the life of the couple, Ferdinand and Imelda, Manifest Destiny, American Senate, Philippine election, Vietnam, CIA, etc. I finally, decided to seriously go through the pages and I was taken aback by so many “discoveries” about how the Philippine government has been fiddled with by America, making me think that it could still be happening today, to put Duterte down.

 

Here are some interesting quoted passages:

 

Chapter 2/ page 28: “America acquired the Philippines (along with Guam, Puerto Rico and Cuba) as part of the spoils of its war against Spain, a war fought in pursuit of the country’s “Manifest Destiny”. (There was deceit during the so-called “American-Spanish War”. The Filipinos, at the last minute, were not allowed to participate to prevent the ensuing of an “honest-to-goodness” fight against the Spaniards by Aguinaldo and his soldiers who came home from Hongkong for this purpose. As planned by the Americans and Spaniards holed up inside Intramuros, and as part of “negotiation”, there should only be a short exchange of shots, before the white flag shall be held up high by one of the Spaniards on the Intramuros bastion facing Manila Bay, thereby, preventing the unnecessary loss of lives on both the side of the Americans and Spaniards. The “drama” also saved the face of the Spaniards from the shame of cowardice or outright surrender without putting up a fight.)

 

“Filipinos generally were most appreciative of Dewey and the Americans for having tossed out the Spanish…. But that didn’t mean they were anxious for another colonial master. Under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo, they took up against the Americans. Aguinaldo is dismissed in American history as a “rebel”; his guerilla was, which is most certainly was, as an “insurrection”….(When the July 4 marked as Independence Day to correlate with America’s was changed to June 12 which was the date when Aguinaldo declared the Philippine Independence at Kawit (Cavite), America’s ill-feeling toward the Philippines took root.)

 

Page 29:     “It was a dirty war, marked by racism and atrocities. The Filipinos were considered “savages”, barbarians, a wild and ignorant people”. Entire towns were burned to the ground; in one village every male over ten years old was ordered shot.” (This passage shows how atrocious America can be in realizing her “dream” of “civilizing” a people who, to her are savages and barbarians! It was during this time that water torture was introduced by the Americans to the Filipinos as a form of painful punishment…right in front of their families!)

 

“The war was fought for businessmen who wanted new profits; generals who wanted bases; and other Americans who just wanted to do good – the “white man’s burden”, as Rudyard Kipling wrote in 1899.” (This passage is an exposition on the greed that underlines the supposedly noble intentions of America in gripping the throat of the Filipinos, despite which she wants the Filipinos to show gratitude to her deceptive intent.)

 

The country’s Constitution, which had to be approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt was virtually a rewrite of the American Constitution.” (Despite the two revisions, the Philippine Constitution is still tinged with a heavy color of American influence, that is why there is a need to totally change it, and this time, Congress is working on it, hopefully for its transformation into a federal system which suits in all aspect the various cultures of the Filipinos and the character or lay out of the archipelago.)

 

Page 30:  “ ….While the Philippine President was the commander in chief….whenever he deemed necessary in order to prevent violence, invasion, insurrection, or rebellion or when the public safety required, he could legally place the Philippines or any part thereof under martial law. It was this provision that Marcos was to invoke in 1972….” (That is how Marcos found out he can be a dictator at all cost.)

 

“….writes Robert Pringle, a career Foreign Service officer with a doctorate in Southeast Asian history who served in the Philippines in the early 1970s. In a scholarly book Pringle says: ‘Myth number one is that we created democracy in the Philippines; that our colonialism was more enlightened than European colonialism, both in its motivations and its consequences. In fact, American rule bolstered a preexisting landed elite, encouraging it to express itself through representative forms…”(So, now we have political dynasties that virtually eats up the supposedly democratic system of the government!)

 

Page 32: “….Filipinos were incensed by the Philippine Trade Act which passed by the US Congress in 1946 and set the terms of the economic relationship between the two countries. ….its provisions were far more favorable to AmericansThe provision that most rankled was the one which gave Americans the same rights as Filipinos to exploit the island’s agricultural and mineral resources and to own and operate public utilities. The “parity” clause violated the Philippine Constitution which mandated that Filipinos must own 60% of any business engaged in the development of the country’s natural resources. Under pressure from the United States, the Philippine Legislature approved a constitutional amendment – after expelling on specious grounds leftist members who opposed it”. (The passage refers to the expulsion of the group of Luis Taruc who was elected by the people to Congress. Luis Taruc was identified with the HUK, shortened from HUKBALAHAP (Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon) that originally fought the Japanese invaders but later reduced to insurgent group due to their disappointment at the dereliction of the Philippine government in granting the promises made after their surrender. And, it is very unfortunate that until today, many Filipinos think that America is very GENEROUS toward the Philippines! )

 

There are many more passages pointing to how America exploited the Philippines. More will be shared on how the CIA came into the picture….and how their “tactics” exploited even the deep religiosity of the Filipinos.

 

The meddling of the Americans in the affairs of the Philippines even went as far as the expulsion of Marcos and the installation of Cory Aquino. Today, tongues are wagging if America is also doing something through the CIA, to deface Duterte, as the agency is said to be expert in coming up with manipulative documentaries. CIA agents are known to infiltrate organizations. Such assumptions are in the face of the obvious orchestrated “tactics” in connivance with Filipino personalities who, perhaps, are trembling at the president’s vocally- expressed threat of their eventual persecution…add to their number the drug lords who are already hurting from the jabs of the president. To make the covert obvious, from all angles, manipulations are emanating from America, simultaneously with those coming right within the Philippines.

 

Note: Underlines provided to some statements are mine, as well as, the commentaries that are enclosed in parenthesis.)

 

 

Mineral Resources of the Philippines

Mineral Resources of the Philippines

by Apolinario Villalobos

During the pre-colonial days of the Philippines, only gold was mined by the natives. The precious metal was among the reasons why the archipelago was coveted by colonizers. Different mineral deposits are practically distributed among the islands and islets that compose the archipelago.

Gold can be found in the Mountain Province, Ilocos Norte, Abra, Camarines  Norte, Camarines Sur, and Mindanao; chromite in Zambales, Batangas, Mindoro, Masbate, Palawan, Surigao, Agusan, Davao, Misamis Oriental, Zamboanga del Sur, and Mountain Province; copper in Ilocos Norte, Tarlac, Zambales, Batangas, Catanduanes, Antique, Capiz, Negros Occidental, Cebu and Tawi-tawi; iron in Ilocos Norte, Mountain Province, Cagayan, Bulacan, Bataan, Camarines Norte, Marinduque, Surigao,Davao and Palawan; natural asphalt in Leyte. Nonoc island is known for its nickel.

Manganese can be found in  Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Camarines Sur, Masbate, Coron Island in the Calamian group, Siquijor, Bohol, Bukidnon, and Leyte; coal in Polilio island, Laguna, Quezon, Mindoro, Capiz, Negros, Cebu, Samar, Davao, Cotabato, and Zamboanga del Sur; oil in Cebu, Cotabato, and Quezon; gypsum in Batangas; sulfur in  Camiguin Island; pyrite in Camarines Sur, Palawan and Surigao; soda feldspar in Cebu, Biiran Island, and Sarangani; phosphate in Pangasinan, Camarines Sur, Albay, Catanduanes, Palawan, Iloilo, Samar and Bohol; quartz sand in Ilocos Norte; magnesite in Davao; granulite and quicksilver in Palawan. Today, the coastline of Ilocos Norte is gashed with non-stop mining of quartz sand by shiploads.

Romblon is known for its world-class marble which can also be mined in the Mountain Province, Guimaras Island, and Bulacan; guano deposit abounds in Pangasinan, Zambales, Camarines Sur, Capiz, Iloilo and Palawan; silica sand can be found in Lubang Island near Palawan, Dinagat island near Surigao, and in Palawan;  limestone abounds in Cagayan, Isabela, Bulacan, Quezon, Samar, Panay island, Cotabato provinces, Cebu, and Palawan.

It is no wonder that “modern colonizers” salivate at the prospect of economically enslaving the Philippines, on account of her abundant mineral deposits which could be considered as “collaterals” for never-ending renewal of debts. This is also the reason why, the Americans immediately demanded the inclusion of the “Parity Rights” in the Philippine Constitution before total self-governance was finally granted.

The West Philippine Sea being disputed with China and other neighboring SEAsian countries, and the Ligwasan Marsh in Cotabato are reputed to be rich in natural gas and deuterium. With the predicted exhaustion of oil deposit in the Middle East, industrialized countries are looking for alternative sources of fuel, and the Philippines is among them.

How can the Filipino, then, not fight for his rights, and protect what are his, such as those that have been mentioned?

Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan, Almost Got Separated from the Jurisdiction of the Philippine Government…during the American Regime

Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan, Almost Got Separated

From the Jurisdiction of the Philippine Government

…during the American Regime

Apolinario Villalobos

In November 1923, the American Chamber of Commerce of Mindanao and Sulu made a proposal to make the Muslim area as an unorganized domain directly under the rule of the Americans. A distinct system of government suited for the area was suggested. However, the proposal was not given much attention, until the Bacon Bill revived the issue.

The sponsors of the Bacon Bill expressed that they just wanted to protect the “defenseless and unarmed, though proud and self-respecting Moros”. As expected, the Filipino leaders opposed the Bill, as they saw the hidden motive behind it which was the exploitation of the areas for rubber production in favor of the American interest. During the time, about more than three million hectares of land in Mindanao were suitable for the cultivation of rubber tree. The Filipinos vehemently insisted that, would there be foreign investors interested in seizing the opportunity of cultivating rubber in Mindanao, it should be fairly done under the administration of the Philippine Government.

As a last desperate argument, proponents of the proposal also insisted that the Moros in Mindanao were never desirous of independence, but prefer to remain under the sovereignty and protection of the Americans. They cited an incident in the past, whereby, Moro leaders supposedly, petitioned the Governor General and the US Congress about such desire. Unfortunately, this allegation was not factually established, as some parties insisted that Filipino Muslims did not really want to separate from their Christian brothers and sisters, but to have independence with them.

The importune Bacon Bill, fortunately, did not illicit support from then, President Collidge and the US Congress. Lately, there’s another move to separate the Moroland from the archipelago via the “original” Bangsamoro Basic Law but was fortunately reviewed for revision before it got implemented. The separation proposal was championed by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, under Iqbal, and ably supported by Ferrer and Deles, two government representatives in the negotiation panel for peace in Mindanao. The proposal is now assuming another name, “Basic Law for Bangsamoro Autonomous Region” which is more appropriate to be consistent with the rest of the other autonomous regions that are already in place. History repeats itself, indeed….

The Mindanao Resistance Against the American Colonizers

The Mindanao Resistance Against

the American Colonizers

By Apolinario Villalobos

The Filipinos who fought the Americans were never called “rebels”, but “outlaws”, “pulahanes”, “tulisanes”, and bandits. It was an unfair reference because the Filipinos who went to the mountains and banded together to fight the aggressors just wanted freedom. This nationalistic sentiment spread as far down as Mindanao.

In March 23, 1903, a group of Filipino rebels attacked an American Constabulary station in Surigao under the command of a certain Captain Clark who was killed, and the guns taken by the attackers. Later on, 75 of the guns were taken back, with many rebels captured and tried. Those who were found to have committed the killing of Clark were hanged. This was during the time of President Theodore Roosevelt.

The Moro resistance in Lanao was led by Sajiduciman, Ampuanagua, and Datu Grande. In June 1902, Datu Tungul of Onayan attacked Camp Vicars, for which the Sultan of Binidayan was suspected to have had a hand. Despite his effort to prove his innocence, the Americans did not believe him, and in desperation, he “ran amuck” which eventually led to his death. The incident further caused hatred against the Americans so that at Maciu, Sultan Tanagan and Sultan Ganduli with about 200 followers clashed with the Americans.

As in mainland Mindanao, the Sulu Muslims were also vehemently against the Americans, harboring the same hatred that they had against the Spaniards. As a peaceful measure, the Americans used the Sultan of Sulu to fulfill their objective of subjugating his subjects. A so-called Bates Treaty was signed, although it was not binding to those who still refused to recognize them (Americans). Among these were Datu Julakanain and Datu Kalbi of Patikul who refused to join the Sultan. Eventually, due to the ineffectiveness of the treaty, it was annulled, as from 1903 to 1905, the fierce resistance of the two aforementioned datus continued. Hassan was killed finally in an encounter at Bud Bagsak. The death of Hassan inspired other nationalistic Muslims in Sulu to carry on their fight against the Americans, such as Pala and Jikiri.

In Cotabato, Datu Ali defied the Americans. He was the successor of Datu Utu, and son-in-law of Datu Piang. Unfortunately, the elder Datu Piang, instead of supporting his son-in-law, collaborated with the Americans, by providing them with all necessary information that they needed. The collaboration finally led to the killing of Datu Ali at Simpetan, in October 31, 1906, together with his 13 followers and three sons.

Following the death of Datu Ali, Datu Alamada with 300 followers and supported by thousands of adherents continued the resistance. His movements, though, were limited around Buldon and Upper Cotabato. Unfortunately again, collaboration led to the downfall of the gallant datu. The collaborators were led by Datu Inuk.

Just like in Luzon and Visayas, the history of Mindanao is tinted with heroic resistance of Muslims, though, with different culture and religion. All of these gallant rebels, however, were bound by one common cause – love of freedom!