Fr. Joseph Borreros and his Journey through Life

Fr. Joseph Borreros and his Journey through Life

…from a struggling student assistant

to an Orthodox priest, and educator with Divine guidance

By Apolinario Villalobos


As a youth, he was among the wave of adventurous migrants from Panay Island, particularly, Dao, Capiz who came to Cotabato. He found his place in the Tacurong Pilot School as a Grade Six pupil in 1961. His family lived in the market of the town which that time was just weaned as a barrio of Buluan. He continued his studies at the Magsaysay Memorial Colleges of the same town. In college, he took up a pre-Law course at the University of San Agustin in Iloilo City but failed to pursue it when he succumbed to a sickness.


He went back to Tacurong and took up Bachelor of Arts in Notre Dame of Tacurong College. To support his studies, he worked as a janitor and later as Library Assistant in the same school. That was during the directorship of Fr. Robert Sullivan, OMI, a kind Irish priest. After his graduation, he taught at the Notre Dame of Lagao in General Santos, South Cotabato for three years.


In 1973 he got interned at the Marist Novitiate in Tamontaka, Cotabato City, and professed temporarily in 1975 during which he was assigned as a Marist Brother at the Notre Dame of Marbel Boys’ Department (Marbel is now known as Koronadal City). From Marbel, he was sent back to the Notre Dame of Lagao.


In 1976, he left the religious congregation of Marist Brothers, but was taken in by Bishop Reginald Artiss, CP, the bishop of Koronadal, to assist in the establishment of the Christian Formation Center which was located at the back of the cathedral. For two years, he went around the parishes and diocese covered by the authority of Bishop Artiss in training members of the Kriska Alagad, Lay Cooperatos, as well as, in establishing Basic Christian Communities.


As Bishop Artiss perceived his potential as a cleric, he was sent to the Regional Major Seminary of Mindanao in Catalunan Grande, Davao City. Fortunately, due to his extensive and intensive pastoral formation background, he was privileged to skip subjects related to it. After four years of theological studies at the said seminary, he was ordained as a priest on April 1, 1982 by Bishop Guttierez, DD, of Koronadal. His first assignment was the parish of Sta. Cruz , formerly politically under South Cotabato, but today, that of Sarangani Province.


In 1985, he was a “floating” priest, awaiting appointment as Superintendent of Diocesan schools and temporarily established his residency at Our Lady of Parish in Polomolok, South Cotabato with the late Fr. Godofredo Maghanoy. The following year, he was finally designated to the mentioned position which he held for three years.


In 1989, he went on a study leave to take up Masters of Science in Educational Management at the De La Salle University in Manila which he finished in 1991. Two years later, he was about to finish his Doctorate in Religious Education pending the completion of his dissertation under the guidance of Bro. Andrew Gonzalez, FSC, but failed to do so due to an important and life-turning decision….to have a family and develop a Non-Government Organization. Driven by his new-found advocacy in life, he worked as Coordinator of the Community Volunteers’ Program under the Council of People’s Development, a Pastoral NGO of Bishop Labayen for three years in Infanta, Quezon.


From 1995 to 2004, he was with the Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas (PhilDHRRA) as a Monitoring Officer of the projects in governance. While with the said NGO, he studied Orthodoxy theology on his own, a week after which, he was consecrated by His Holiness Patriarch Bartholomew at the Orthodox Cathedral located at Sucat, Paraἧaque, Metro Manila.


He was inspired to bring along his former 61 parishioners in Maricaban, a depressed area in Pasay City when he presented himself and his family to Fr. Philemon Castro, parish priest of the Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in Paraἧaque. Like him, he found his former flock to be also journeying spiritually. After several months of catechism, they were accepted to the Orthodox Church. They were further accepted by the former Metropolitan Nikitas Lulias of Hongkong and Southeast Asia.  A little later, Fr. Joseph was ordained to the Minor Orders as “Reader”, for which he started to render regular duty at the Cathedral on Sundays which did not affect his NGO-related activities.


He was asked to leave his NGO responsibilities in 2004, in exchange for which he was sent to Greece to serve as a full worker in the Ministry – live with the monks of the Monastery of St. Nicholas of Barson in Tripoli, southern Greece. Afterwards he was sent back to the Philippines to do catechesis in different mission areas, particularly, in Laguna, Sorsogon and Masbate.


In 2006, he was ordained to the Orthodox priesthood and assigned under the Omophorion of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople which is presently headed by His All Holiness Patriarch Bartholomew, Successor to the Apostolic Throne of St. Andre, the first-called apostle.


In 2009, he did mission work in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. Until today, he carries the same responsibilities but the area expanded to include SOCSKSARGEN area (South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani and General Santos), as well as, Davao del Sur.


To date, he was able to firmly establish three communities, such as: Holy Resurrection Orthodox Community in Lake Sebu; St. Isidore of Chios Orthodox Community in San Guillermo, Hagonoy, Davao del Sur; and Apostles St. Andrew and James Orthodox Community in Kisulan, Kiblawan, Davao del Sur.


Aside from taking care of the Sacramental life of the faithful, his mission work also includes values formation of students. Two particular schools that are benefiting from this are the Marvelous College of Technology, Inc. in Koronadal City, and Pag-asa Wisdom Institute in Bagumbayan, Sultan Kudarat where he also serves as Principal. According to Fr. Joseph, the two institutions are community-centered, privately-owned, mission-oriented and most especially, cater to the less in life but with a strong desire to overcome their socio-economic barriers.


Fr. Joseph and his family live at the Theotokos Orthodox Mission Center in Surallah, and which also serves as the nucleus of his mission works. His life is typically austere as shown by the structure that accommodates his flock during worship days. The same character also defines the rest of the “chapels” throughout the areas that he covers. But since there are other things that his Mission needs, he unabashedly appeals to the “mission-minded souls to help in their capacity, sustain, strengthen, so that it will grow with flourish for the glory of God”.


Fr. Joseph, as an ordained Orthodox priest has been given the name, “Panharios”.


For those who are interested to reach out to Fr. Joseph, his address is at:

Theotokos Orthodox Mission Center

120 Dagohoy St., Zone 5

Surallah, South Cotabato




Cellphone: 09165433001


Do Not Feel Bad About Unfulfilled Dreams

Do Not Feel Bad

About Unfulfilled Dreams

By Apolinario Villalobos


There is a popular adage, “life is what we make it”. All of us have limitations, hence, it follows that the life we live is based on our best effort, but hampered by limitations. We cannot be like what others are. We can strive, yes…but the result may not be the same as what others have accomplished. The problem with some of us is that they dream to be like somebody else which is impossible. Successful people can be looked up to as models or be admired, but cannot be exactly copied.


Success is relative. The degree and kind of success varies. In this regard, to avoid getting disappointed, one should accept what he has accomplished based on his capability and just strive a little harder to be able to accomplish more. He should not feel bad, for instance, because he did not become a manager like his friend, or a physician like another friend, or a mayor, etc.


Those who develop grudge because of their “failure” supposedly, equate success to fame which is wrong. Others feel that just because they did not become famous like others, they have become a failure. I can say that such kind of feeling is a manifestation of jealousy which breeds grudge….nothing else. Success in life is the happiness and contentment one feels every morning as he wakes up to another day….it is the joy felt in what he does.


We should not be occupied with gawking at what others are doing or be jealous with what they have accomplished. Each one of us has a different kind of life to live and concerns much different from the rest. On the other hand, the jealous attitude is most often the result of unnecessary and unhealthy rivalry in offices and other work sites. This is called professional jealousy which affects the operation and atmosphere.


Finally, successful people may wonder why some friends have suddenly kept a distance from them for no reason at all that they know of. There is something for these shunned successful people to ponder about…jealousy developed by their friends who have the habit of comparing themselves with others. Such unnecessary feeling made them jealous resulting to grudge that time may not expunge easily. My suggestion: a change in attitude…by being positive in living one’s life….and changing it for the better.


Hindi Kailangang Magbasa ng mga Mamahaling Libro Upang Malaman ng Isang Tao ang mga Layunin niya sa Mundo

Hindi Kailangang Magbasa ng mga Mamahaling Libro

Upang Malaman ng Isang Tao ang mga Layunin niya sa Mundo

Ni Apolinario Villalobos

Nagtataka ako kung bakit kailangan pang bumili ng mga mamahaling na libro ang isang tao upang mabasa niya sa mga ito kung ano ang mga layunin niya sa mundo. Para lang masabi ng ibang nagbabasa sila ng mga librong isinulat ng mga dayuhan, ipinagyayabang pa ang mga titulo. Ang kayabangang ito ng tao ang isa sa mga hindi matanggal na mantsang nakabahid sa kanyang pagkatao.

Para sa mga naniniwala sa Diyos, ang isang simpleng tanong lang tungkol dito ay, “bakit ginawa ng Diyos ang tao?”. At, sa mga hindi naman naniniwala sa Diyos, “ano ang layunin niya o bakit siya nabubuhay sa mundo?” Sa mga naniniwala sa Diyos, bibliya dapat ang basahin dahil doon ay malinaw na sinasabing kaya ginawa ng Diyos ang tao ay upang may magsamba sa Kanya. Sa mga hindi naman naniniwala sa Diyos, ang pinakamagandang sagot, ay “malay ko, basta ako ay nabubuhay”.


Kaakibat ng paniwala sa Diyos at pagsamba ang dapat ay pagmamahal sa kapwa…na kung hindi gawin ay nagpapawala ng silbi sa pagsamba sa Diyos, dahil lumalabas na ang ginagawang pagsamba ay ka-ipokrituhan lang pala. Ang isa sa mga nakikitang kawalan ng pagmamahal sa kapwa ay ang pagpuna sa kanilang ginagawa upang palabasin ng pumupuna na siya lang ang tama. Dapat manalamin din paminsan-minsan ang mahilig mangpuna ng ibang tao.

Sa mga hindi naniniwala sa Diyos, kailangan nilang makisama sa kapwa man lamang upang mabuhay o maging ligtas. Kung hindi nila ito gagawin, baka isang araw na lang ay makita silang nakahandusay at duguan sa isang sulok. Dapat isipin ng mga taong ito na hindi man sila naniniwala sa bibliya ay mayroon pa ring kasabihang dapat gumabay sa kanilang buhay, ang: “huwag mong gawin sa iba, ang ayaw mong gawin ng iba sa ‘yo” na babala tungkol sa masamang gawin…o ang positibong “gawin mo sa iba ang gusto mong gawin nila sa ‘yo” na may kinalaman sa pagtulong at pagmamahal sa kapwa.

Ang nakatikim ng “masarap” na buhay sa mundo ay lalo pang naghahangad ng matagal na pamumuhay. Mangyayari lamang ito kung kabutihan ang dapat umiral sa mga kilos at pananalita…ibig sabihin, mamuhay ng marangal at may pagmamahal sa kapwa, lalo na sa Diyos! ‘Yan ang mga layunin ng tao…iilang kataga, na hindi kailangang basahin mula sa kung ilang daang pahina ng mga mamahaling libro na isinulat ng mga dayuhan!

Aggressive and Violent islamic Expansionism Poses Threat to World Peace…a caution to the Philippines

Aggressive and Violent Islamic Expansionism

Poses Threat to World Peace

…a caution to the Philippines

By Apolinario Villalobos

There is nothing wrong with all kinds of religion or cults, for as long as tolerance and respect among the faithful are observed. If there is no violent or aggressive attempt of conversion, I do not think that animosity shall be developed among the parties concerned. Conversion should be done “indirectly” – through convincing actions by the advocates, to show others that indeed, their religion is worth embracing. People should be given a liberal option as to what faith they should follow. They should not be intimidated by force, or threatened with the nozzle of a gun.

Special reference is being made to the religious polarization of the world between Christian and Islamic faiths. Tension between the two has slackened after the Crusade era. But, it seems that even religion is following a cycle or giving truth to the adage that history repeats itself, as lately, an aggressive Islamic expansionism is on the rise, spearheaded by its extremist advocates. There is a global attempt today for the “restoration” of Islam as supposedly the world religion, and even an aggressive “expansion”, which to the layman could mean “mass conversion”.

Hugging cyber news pages are European countries that are under the pressure exerted by the influx of Muslim immigrants, purportedly victims of persecution in their countries of origin, particularly, Syria. And, there is even an appeal by the United Nations to the far-off Asian countries to “adopt” some of them. Some European countries, being nearest to the origin of these evacuees were the first to offer succor and accommodated the refugees. Unfortunately, these generous countries are now being rocked with unrest by the same beneficiary of sympathy, in the name of the latter’s Islamic faith. There is even a bold threat by a group of Muslims in Denmark that their host shall become the “first Muslim country in Europe”.

The extremist ISIS group has done more than enough destruction to the historic and Biblical countries that they occupied and fear to the rest that they plan to overrun. Will Europe suffer the same fate, as there could be Islamic terrorists who may have successfully melded with the so-called “refugees” who have been accommodated by sympathetic European countries? From Europe, will masquerading terrorists who may have successfully blended with authentic refugees creep their way towards Southeast Asia to muddle the harmonious and peaceful co-existence of Christians and Muslims?

While the Muslims are aggressive in their attempt to convert others, none of such drive can be observed among the Christians, especially, the Roman Catholics. The publicities being enjoyed by the Vatican because of the controversial new pope, Francis, should not be taken as an attempt to convert. In fact, there is an ongoing cleansing within the Roman Catholic community, as shown by the purging of erring church leaders, as well as, vehement reminders of the pope for his flock to follow the “Christian way”. Nothing about converting Muslims, Protestants, etc. is being done in any way. On the other hand, if the effort of the new pope is viewed by skeptics as a convincing “Christian act” of a Roman Catholic, it is up to them to decide if they want to jump over the fence and join the flock of Jesus.

In the Philippines, particularly, Mindanao, the Muslims and Christians are enjoying a harmonious and peaceful co-existence. The call for autonomy which many Filipinos deemed long overdue is more political and not a matter of religion. In fact, it is expected that the same clamor for political autonomy shall be raised by the rest of the regions as the system has been proved to be effective in the Cordillera Region, although, deemed necessary in the first place, due to the archipelagic make up of the country.

The Philippines is a clear manifestation of harmony if tolerance and respect among people with diverse culture and faith, are observed. In view of the threat that is now rocking some European countries due to aggressive religious assertion by Islamic fundamentalists, Filipinos should be more vigilant and help each other in maintaining a steadfast resistance against any religiously-hooded incursion that could be tainted with evil intent. Filipinos have stood united on a foundation of strongly- welded brotherhood that not even the corrupted political system failed to shake. This fervent show of steadfast conviction should send a warning to the evil-minded around the world, that the Philippines is not a breeding ground for  unrest under the cloak of religion that the misguided extremists plan to foment…as such attempt shall never and ever be tolerated!

Ang Mabuhay sa Mundo

Ang Mabuhay sa Mundo

Ni Apolinario Villalobos

Sa dami ng mga pagsubok na kailangang harapin

Ang mabuhay sa mundo ay talagang napakahirap –

Sa nagdarahop man o mayaman, ito ay nangyayari

Dapat unawaing katotohanan na walang pinipili.

Lahat umaasam na marating, tugatog ng tagumpay

Ginagawa ang lahat sa kahi’t anong kaparaanan

Mayroong nagtagumpay, subali’t mayroong kapalit

Mga hagupit sa buhay na tinanggap, maski masakit.

Para sa iba, pera ang katumbas ng mithing tagumpay

Para sa iba, ang makilala sa isang laranga’y sapat na

Ang iba naman, mga kaibigan ang gustong mapadami

Kaya sa pakikipagharap, pinipilit nilang magkunwari.

Merong madaling malasing sa nakamtang tagumpay

Mga paa’y halos ayaw nang ibalik sa lupang niyapakan

Animo’y mga kulisap na sa paglipad ay sabik na sabik –

Sa pinagmulang kahirapan, ayaw tumingin at bumalik.

Meron namang sa perang nakamal animo ay nabaliw

Hindi malaman ang gawin kung ibangko ba o gastusin

Sa kasamaang palad, kadalasa’y mawawaldas lang pala

Sa isang iglap, pera’y naglaho, hindi binigyang halaga.

Ang masaklap sa buhay, palaging sa huli ang pagsisisi

Laging may dahilan kung bakit sa paghakba’y nagkamali

Kalimitan, ang lahat ng pangyayari ay hindi matanggap –

Na dahil sa katangahan, nawalang saysay, mga pagsisikap!

There is no Permanent Status in the World

There is no Permanent Status in this World

By Apolinario Villalobos

Good or bad fortune is not the same for all men. Some are born rich, while some are born poor. In some cases, some who were born rich become poor due to extravagance and negative circumstances beyond their control. On the other hand, some who were born poor have become rich by dint of hard work and frugality, still some, by virtue of “resourcefulness”, especially, those who entered politics.

Nobody wants to suffer from poverty. It is just that some people have a very low level of satisfaction that what appears to some people as poverty, is to the former, already a satisfactory life. Meanwhile, other aspects of life such as poverty and satisfaction have different degrees and rungs.

There is one thing, however, that most of us already know, as an important factor that can affect life – exploitation of the weak by the strong. Since time immemorial, this has been going on. For the lesser creatures, it is just for mere survival, as in the case of the animals in the jungle that kill for food. But for the civilized man, the ultimate reason is subjugation of the weak.

Nevertheless, as man by nature, is a struggling creature, along the way, there could be a reversal of fortune. Along the corridor of time, the vanquished sometimes become the victor and vice versa. There are also cases wherein dominating rich families encounter financial catastrophe and find themselves without a single centavo. Also, countries that used to be prosperous suddenly become impoverished due to badly managed national coffer and topsy-turvy financial system resulting from corruption.

Back to man, there are stories about rags-to-riches success. One is about Nora Aunor, touted as the “Filipina with a Golden Voice”, who as a teen-age girl, sold cold drinking water in a train station in Naga City. Another successful show business personality is German Moreno, the comedian turned broadcaster who used to be a cigarette vendor and janitor at Grand Opera House. There is also the story of Vice-President Binay who used to augment their family income by raising hogs in their backyard…but, now – just looking great with “hard and wisely-earned” money! Another story is about a guy, a former neighbor, who was the janitor-messenger of their office, but due to his business acumen and right connections, amassed millions from his real estate ventures. I am not saying here, that all ventures to earn riches are done the “right way”.

As for the downfall of the once great men, there are a lot of stories that can be told. One is that of the former Shah of Iran, who although, not very impoverished, is said to have no permanent residence today. A former Filipino world champion boxer, suddenly found himself without friends and money after squandering painfully- earned dollars. He is said to be begging in the wet market of General Santos City today. Many Filipino movie actors and actresses who used to be famous, failed to invest their talent fee and died paupers, while some are languishing with terminal diseases, surviving on daily financial dole-out from friends for their medicine.

The world is replete with success and downfall stories, giving substance to the adage: “what goes up, must come down”. These are lessons that should be learned as they are written in books or told, but only few are taking note, for as what a line in the song, “Where Have All the Flowers Gone” says: “when will we ever learn?…yes, when will we ever learn?”.

The very positive-minded have the answer: “que sera sera…whatever will be, will be”…which may be okay, for as long as no regret will be felt at the end!…and for as long as they do not blame others and God!

We should not forget that “regrets always come at the end”….

China and the World

China and the World

By Apolinario Villalobos

While China has tricked the US in the latter’s ploys in Asia, it has gone way ahead of Russia in territorial expansion. While the US uses its “big brother” approach, China uses cheap labor as the main factor in becoming an economic giant which made practically the whole world dependent on its cheap and fake products. No wonder why no country, even the United Nations, ever made an attempt to slap China with some kind of an embargo or boycott, which has been the practice to punish other countries, despite its unbecoming actions, particularly,  its reclamations at the West Philippine Sea.

While the US has not done anything yet, as regards territorial expansion, Russia uses force and has been successful in the Ukraine region, and China on the other hand, uses its “resourcefulness” by building fake islands to legally extend its territories, as well as, money to win the confidence of economically-ailing nations.

The ASEAN is obviously helpless in counteracting the moves of China, with most members even blatantly showing their once covert image as allies. There is no hope for the Philippines on the other hand as regards the West Philippine Sea, as even if the United Nations shall decide on its favor, there is a question on how the decision shall be implemented. China is a member of the Security Council of the UN, together with the USA, France and Russia. While the US is obviously helpless even in checking the ongoing reclamations in the West Philippine Sea, France is helplessly silent on the woeful issues that are now befalling third-world member countries, and Russia is clearly on China’s side because it is also doing what the latter is doing, aside from their obvious close relationship to date due to their common objectives. That is the sad picture of the United Nations which China could have perceived a few years after the WWII!

China has already made its presence in the African continent strongly felt with its various investments disguised as “aids”. The nearby Mediterranean could be the next target, thanks to the economic downfall of Greece which China could be regarding as a timely opportunity for their entry into the Mediterranean region. If Greece will eventually get out of the European Union, it will be on its own, but how can it be possible without help from outside, unless drastic moves by the government shall be made such as declaring a Martial Law to enforce stringent measures on spending? The issue on Greece is money. If the Greeks would like to recover from their misfortune, there are so many things that they should sacrifice, so that they will be left with a difficult choice – give up luxurious life under a Martial Law? Or, still enjoy the same life under a “caretaker country” such as China through its “aids”. There is no way for the US to get into the picture because it is also indebted to China.

China could have foreseen the problem of the world which is centered on money that is why it has initiated the organization of AIIB which gained many members in so short a time after the launching. If the image of the United Nations as a reliable organization of nations continues to slide, the World Bank would definitely follow suit. There is no problem with the UN as it has been seen as a helpless organization anyway, so it can just melt away. Besides, the world is seemingly being apportioned today, either three-way or two- way: three-way among the USA, China and Russia, or just two-way between Russia and China. It will be a goodbye to the “manifest destiny” of America as fighter for democracy…and a welcome to the “economic destiny” of China!

Is the world nearing the epoch of “world confederacy”?… in which all nations shall be federated under a permanent leader while left as they are with their own cultural identity?…in which only one monetary token shall be used?…in which two or three universal languages shall be used?…in which the ideology shall be the “hybrid communism”?

Life and Writing

Life and Writing
By Apolinario Villalobos

Life and writing are similar on the aspects of their inception, mid-activities, and culmination.

There is pain felt as the womb pulsates, while the new life therein tries to manifest itself to the world. There is pain, too, in the head of the writer that throbs with effort as he struggles on how to start a sentence.

Relief is felt by the mother when the bundle of new life finally makes it out to enjoy its firs whiff of air. Relief is felt, too, by the writer as the first word comes out of his head to trigger the avalanche of more words that shall comprise a literary expression.

As the child grows enjoying life, he or she is guided by the parents, institutions and established norms so that he or she becomes a virtuous member of the society. On the other hand, as the writer progresses, set norms and ethics, as well as, his own style guide him to ensure that the outcome of his effort becomes satisfactory.

In life, it is difficult to “call it quits”, especially, as one enjoys life no end. But the onset cannot be prevented, as sometimes, it is unexpected – caused by an accident. Normally, though, it should come with old age or disease.

The writer, meanwhile, has to allow a ‘twist” to conclude what he is doing. Or, gracefully allow the avalanche of words to be exhausted, naturally, and spell the end.

As with living… writing can also be difficult.

Everything in Life has a Price…a consequence that we deserve for each of our deeds

Everything in Life has a Price
…a consequence that we deserve for each of our deeds
By Apolinario Villalobos

Every deed that we do consciously has a price. It is the consequence that we deserve for each of our actions. Since young, we need not be told that telling a lie is bad, or hitting a friend can hurt him physically. By telling a lie, the conscience is bothered which can be carried on as we advance in age. By hitting a friend, he is expected to retaliate, so that we get the same hurt.

When young people get curious so they indulge in drugs, they become addicts and later become a nuisance to the society, hence, ostracized, viewed by others with disgust. If the parents failed to carry out their responsibility in rearing their children properly, the price they get is the latter’s disrespect, and the proverbial pain in the neck, for constant problems that their children give them.

Because citizens of a country sell their vote during elections, the price they get is a bunch of corrupt officials who steal from the government’s coffer – the people’s money. Add to that the instability that the elected corrupt officials give to the government system, especially economic, resulting to the people’s deprivation.

War is the price for the different nations’ greed for expanded territory. It is the price for the zealots’ or fanatics’ desire to impose their religious belief to other people who resist by all means. It is also the consequence of connivance among strong nations to control weak ones. While pockets of it are happening now in many parts of the world, it is also looming over contested areas that at the moment, are enjoying volatile peace….needing just a single spark to explode.

Devastation of Mother Nature is the price of recklessness and greed in many forms. Forests are denuded for timber that man needs for his comfort. Hills and mountains are pockmarked with diggings for minerals and gems to satisfy his vanity. Fish trawlers deplete oceans of breeding fishes, resulting to deprivation and hunger.

Pollution is the price of progress. Not only is the atmosphere ripped open but its tranquility, as well, is seriously disturbed . Endless line of cars are spilled out by factories – cars that emit residue of fossil fuel 24/7, fattening the pockets of manufacturers at the expense of mankind’s health, and the earth’s deterioration due to the effect on its atmosphere.

Man is practically committing a self-annihilation! The suffering that he is enduring today is the ultimate price that he pays for his vanity, greed and pride!

Philosophies in Life

Philosophies in Life
By Apolinario Villalobos

Due to differing beliefs and advocacies of mankind, it is best to know to which “school” or group of thought we belong:

1. Absolutism is the belief in an ultimate reality in which all differences are reconciled.
2. Agnosticism is the belief that the ultimate answer to all fundamental inquiries is that we do not know.
3. Altruism is the way of living and acting in the interest of others rather than oneself.
4. Asceticism is the belief that the highest point in life can be achieved by withdrawing oneself from the physical world into the inner world of the spirit.
5. Atheism is the rejection of God.
6. Atomism is the belief that the universe is composed of distinct units that are detachable or isolatable.
7. Critical Idealism is the belief that man cannot establish anything beyond his own experience.
8. Critical Realism is the belief that aside from physical and mental aspects of reality, there is also another aspect called essences.
9. Determination theorizes that the universe is following a fixed or pre-determined design.
10. Dialectical Materialism is the belief that the materialistic character of reality is based on the struggle between two opposing forces, with occasional intercession of harmony.
11. Dogmatism is the assertion of a belief without support of authoritative basis.
12. Criticism is the belief that the way to knowledge is between dogmatism and skepticism.
13. Dualism is the theory that there are always two radical and independent elements that compose the world, such as bad and good, material and spiritual, etc.
14. Egoism is the belief that the highest point in life is serving one’s own interests.
15. Evolutionism is the theory that the universe is the result of progression of inter-related phenomena.
16. Hedonism is the belief that pleasure is the highest point in life.
17. Humanism teaches that in this world, human interest and human mind are supreme.
18. Idealism regards the idea as the basis of existence and knowledge, and the search for the best or highest, is ethics.
19. Intuitionalism is the philosophy that truth can be perceived by instinct, and not by analysis.
20. Materialism is the belief that physical well-being is the most important in life.
21. Meliorism is the belief situated between optimism and pessimism; that the world has the capacity to improve with the help of man.
22. Monism is the belief in only one and ultimate reality.
23. Mysticim teaches that it is only in the direct contact of the divine that ultimate reality is achieved.
24. Naturalism believes that all phenomena occur naturally.
25. Optimism asserts that all will work out for the best.
26. Pantheism is the belief that the universe is identical with God.
27. Personalism is the belief in the spiritual beings or independent persons.
28. Pessimism is the belief that everything is doomed.
29. Pluralism is the theory that there are more than two components of reality that cannot be reduced.
30. Positivisim is the belief that the knowledge of phenomena is not absolute but relative, or that man cannot gain knowledge except from the occurrence of phenomena.
31. Pragmatism teaches that the test of truth results to practical consequences.
32. Rationalism is the belief that even by reason alone, without any experience, the basic reality of the universe can be achieved.
33. Relativism is the total rejection of the concept of absolute.
34. Skepticism asserts the uncertainty of any fact.
35. Theism believes in the concept of God as a practical assumption.
36. Transcendentalism is the belief in a vital reality that can surpass human experience.
37. Voluntarism believes in the will as the defining element in the universe.

Without our knowing it, the way we live manifests one or more of the philosophies, regardless of our religion and culture. However, oftentimes, there is no consistency in our acts and the way we think. Seldom do we find people who can maintain at least one philosophy in his life. Even saints cannot claim such consistency. As we live, we are supposed to act out what are in our mind. Sometimes though, there is hesitance in acting out some of these. Worst, even though they are good, if these are learned, they may just be forgotten in time.

Our philosophy could be innate, hence, manifested without much effort, such as being “naturally” helpful to others to the point of being altruistic. Some, who in the beginning had strong faith in God, become agnostic because of doubts that developed later due to accidental “discoveries” and nagging questions on imposed doctrines. This is the reason why, we find former priests who have made a total 360-degree turnaround in their life by discarding their priestly garb and decided to raise a family. There are also some people who do not belong to any religion, but have strong faith in God….manifesting the idea that belief in God does not necessarily mean belonging to any religious group. Still, there are some who do not believe in God but are more like Christ in their action.

Whatever is the philosophy of others, it is important that they be respected for it, for as long as they don’t use it in hurting others. We should not force our belief to others, especially, verbally. “Good” and “bad” are self-explanatory and universal. If we believe that we are doing the good thing, we should SHOW it through our actions and just hope that others will notice and emulate us. What is bad, we should avoid doing. I don’t think that is hard to do.

War is one grave result of clashing philosophies….