The Evolution of the Deeply-rooted Elitist Political and Economic Dominion that Controls the Philippines

The Evolution of the Deeply-rooted Elitist

Political and Economic Dominion that Controls the Philippines

By Apolinario Villalobos

When the Americans took over the reins of authority over the Philippines from the Spaniards, they saw the convenience in using the existing peasant-tenant relationship. This approach was used by Jacob Schurman who was appointed by the then, President McKinley, to head the Schurman Commission which subtly used the Filipino elite in laying down the groundwork for an effective control of the population in 1899.

In Negros, however, the job of the Americans was made easier by the local elite and landlords who did not wait to be prodded. They took the initiative of organizing a provisional government with the obvious objective of protecting their vast holdings and interests. Among them were Juan Araneta, Jose Luzuriaga, Leandro Locsin, Demetrio Larena, ang Agustin Montilla. They took the effort of contacting the Americans who were busy in their subjugation operations in Luzon and Visayas regions. Finally, on February 1899, representatives of the elite Negrenses succeeded in touching base with the military government under Gen. E. Otis, who eventually, created the Visayan Military district with Gen. James F. Smith at the helm, as the island’s Governor.

As pockets of the Aguinaldo-led resistance movement under the Malolos Revolutionary government were still present in Negros, open hostilities eventually ensued between them and the American-supported Negros elite and landlords, with the latter eventually prevailing.

The same pattern of partnership or collaboration between the elite/landowners and the Americans was also employed in Luzon with Baliuag (Bulacan) as the starting point. The successful takeover of towns by Americans, finally led to the capture of Aguinaldo in 1901, in Isabela. Unfortunately, the effort of the Americans using the mentioned strategy did not succeed in Mindanao. Meanwhile, the organizational plan for the subjugated towns was prepared by a Committee headed by the American-appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Cayetano Arellano.

For the central government’s Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches, the American-controlled Philippine Commission, appointed prominent personalities, still from the elite stratum of the population. Very prominent was the Chief Justice Cayetano Arellano, a law professor of the University of Santo Tomas, practicing lawyer and with strong inclination and conviction about the belief in the “sovereignty of the United States over the Philippines.” Other renowned members of the elite society who took political center stage were: Manuel L. Quezon, Manuel  Roxas, Gregorio Araneta, Benito Legarda, Osmeῆa, Jose Laurel, Jose Abad Santos, Elpidio Quirino, Benigno Aquino Sr., Claro M. Recto, Camilo Osias, Emilio Tirona, Juan Sumulong, Pedro Gil, and Ruperto Montinola, among many others.

The Americans were wise in using the elite for their orchestrated control of the Luzon and Visayas regions, and parts of Mindanao. The said group had the fear of losing their privileges and security of their interests, in view of the growing clamor of the masses for the redistribution of land since the later part of the Spanish regime, and they saw an opportunity in cooperating with the Americans in exchange for such objective. They also had an historical distrust of the masses, whom they viewed with disgust, being uneducated and whom they alleged to be dwelling on dubious moral values. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Cayetano Arellano were specially, vocal about these views.

The hideous strategy of the Americans with the strong cooperation of the elite not only widened the gap between the peasants and the landlords in the Visayas and Luzon regions. The landlords became richer as they broadened the extent of their haciendas while the peasants became more impoverished as they suffered the same fate under the Spanish landlords that included the friars.

Meanwhile, the control of the three branches of the central government by the elite families, resulted to the “blooming” of political dynasties. The already securely- entrenched political families were joined later on by their financially- struggling allies who became rich when they also, entered the political arena.

Today, the economic and political dominion that controls the country is distributed among the historic political families and landlords, native and mestizo business tycoons who have tract records in supporting the political dynasties that move heaven and earth to perpetuate their hold on political reins of the country, and the new breed of rags-to-riches political “geniuses”. It is an inhuman conspiracy that not even hell can equal!

Is the theory of Evolution still Relevant?

Is the Theory of Evolution still Relevant?
By Apolinario Villalobos

I got introduced to the theory of evolution when I was in high school, such being part of the Biology subject. That time, I was awed by our teacher’s presentation on how genes changed, developed, etc. from a simple form to a complicated one, the highest of which is man.

But today, I practically removed such nonsense from my mind. My reason is that, if such theory is true, there should be new tribes now in Africa and other continents where apes and chimpanzees which are supposed to evolve into men, abound! But, no…they still remain the same hairy creatures just like their ancestors thousands of years ago! Other creatures that are said to evolve such as fish, lizards, crocodiles and many more, are still the same until today. Some may have developed helpful appendages but only as part of their environmental adaptation which is normal.

A simple doubting Thomas like me, also asks why the peoples of the world have different features. Why are Europeans fair in complexion? Why are Asians shorter in height? Why are some tribes in Africa gigantic in stature, and why are they black? Why do orientals have chinky eyes? Etc., etc.

Genes can be manipulated. That is a fact today. Plants are even injected with animal genes to make them hardy. That is why there are super veggies as a result of their manipulated genes – the GMO’s. Human body parts can be transplanted…another fact. It will not be far from now that the head can also be transferred to another body. Semen can also be stored to be rejuvenated thousands of years from now. Glutathione medications can make people fairer in complexion which indicates “tampering” of cells. The heart can be made to function using a mechanical contraption, and the same is true with other organs. For so many years now, the so-called stem cell therapy has been practiced to repair malfunctioning and weak organs, thereby, extending the life expectancy of a person – a major manipulation of man’s physical make up.

The question now should be “who” did the first manipulation of genes in order to come up with humanity on earth? Was the first man, the result of manipulation made by “aliens” millions of years ago, using some parts from their own body in combination with those from creatures that they found on earth when they came to visit thousands of years ago, during which they were regarded as “gods”? For how long was their experiments done to finally come up with an “intelligent man”. Were the “aliens” themselves of different races back in other heavenly bodies where they came from?

I do not hesitate to bring forward my question, although, it definitely seems to be wild. But were, flying machines, steel ships, “submersible” ships, amphibian cars, landing on the moon, space travel, organ transplant, “talking” and “singing” machines, etc. not considered as “wild” ideas hundreds of years ago?

My asking about aliens as suspects in the manipulation of genes to come up with “intelligent man” does not mean that I am an atheist, because I also consider the “aliens” themselves, as among the creatures of God, just like the whole of universe, down to its last molecule. Despite my seemingly wild view, I still maintain my opinion that there is just One Ultimate Cause for all creations…and that is Him!

My simple mind thinks that the “legends” in the Bible have basis after all. The primitive perception of the early men, differ greatly from the perception of the modern men. For instance, during the Biblical time, the flight or flying is symbolized by wings, hence, they came up with “angels”, supposedly sexless creatures with wings. But, today, flight contraptions are already in use, such as “hang glides” and “parachutes”, but we do not call the men who use them as “angels”, but “sky jumpers”.

Religion should not set people apart from each other. Nobody should not fight to death, about the “supremacy” and “truthfulness” of his or her religion. Each one should focus on love for each other which in the first place is what He wanted and still wants to prevail. Differing faiths should be nurtured in the heart and not in the head that tends to jumble them because of the so-called “intelligence” that has obviously gone out of control!

My SUGGESTED caution is never compare religions…as it is subjective, being man’s “invention”….and most importantly, leave others to their own kind of faith.

Finally, to answer my question on the relevance of evolution today, my personal view is NO, because I still believe in creation, but perceived as already explained above.