Philosophies in Life
By Apolinario Villalobos
Due to differing beliefs and advocacies of mankind, it is best to know to which “school” or group of thought we belong:
1. Absolutism is the belief in an ultimate reality in which all differences are reconciled.
2. Agnosticism is the belief that the ultimate answer to all fundamental inquiries is that we do not know.
3. Altruism is the way of living and acting in the interest of others rather than oneself.
4. Asceticism is the belief that the highest point in life can be achieved by withdrawing oneself from the physical world into the inner world of the spirit.
5. Atheism is the rejection of God.
6. Atomism is the belief that the universe is composed of distinct units that are detachable or isolatable.
7. Critical Idealism is the belief that man cannot establish anything beyond his own experience.
8. Critical Realism is the belief that aside from physical and mental aspects of reality, there is also another aspect called essences.
9. Determination theorizes that the universe is following a fixed or pre-determined design.
10. Dialectical Materialism is the belief that the materialistic character of reality is based on the struggle between two opposing forces, with occasional intercession of harmony.
11. Dogmatism is the assertion of a belief without support of authoritative basis.
12. Criticism is the belief that the way to knowledge is between dogmatism and skepticism.
13. Dualism is the theory that there are always two radical and independent elements that compose the world, such as bad and good, material and spiritual, etc.
14. Egoism is the belief that the highest point in life is serving one’s own interests.
15. Evolutionism is the theory that the universe is the result of progression of inter-related phenomena.
16. Hedonism is the belief that pleasure is the highest point in life.
17. Humanism teaches that in this world, human interest and human mind are supreme.
18. Idealism regards the idea as the basis of existence and knowledge, and the search for the best or highest, is ethics.
19. Intuitionalism is the philosophy that truth can be perceived by instinct, and not by analysis.
20. Materialism is the belief that physical well-being is the most important in life.
21. Meliorism is the belief situated between optimism and pessimism; that the world has the capacity to improve with the help of man.
22. Monism is the belief in only one and ultimate reality.
23. Mysticim teaches that it is only in the direct contact of the divine that ultimate reality is achieved.
24. Naturalism believes that all phenomena occur naturally.
25. Optimism asserts that all will work out for the best.
26. Pantheism is the belief that the universe is identical with God.
27. Personalism is the belief in the spiritual beings or independent persons.
28. Pessimism is the belief that everything is doomed.
29. Pluralism is the theory that there are more than two components of reality that cannot be reduced.
30. Positivisim is the belief that the knowledge of phenomena is not absolute but relative, or that man cannot gain knowledge except from the occurrence of phenomena.
31. Pragmatism teaches that the test of truth results to practical consequences.
32. Rationalism is the belief that even by reason alone, without any experience, the basic reality of the universe can be achieved.
33. Relativism is the total rejection of the concept of absolute.
34. Skepticism asserts the uncertainty of any fact.
35. Theism believes in the concept of God as a practical assumption.
36. Transcendentalism is the belief in a vital reality that can surpass human experience.
37. Voluntarism believes in the will as the defining element in the universe.
Without our knowing it, the way we live manifests one or more of the philosophies, regardless of our religion and culture. However, oftentimes, there is no consistency in our acts and the way we think. Seldom do we find people who can maintain at least one philosophy in his life. Even saints cannot claim such consistency. As we live, we are supposed to act out what are in our mind. Sometimes though, there is hesitance in acting out some of these. Worst, even though they are good, if these are learned, they may just be forgotten in time.
Our philosophy could be innate, hence, manifested without much effort, such as being “naturally” helpful to others to the point of being altruistic. Some, who in the beginning had strong faith in God, become agnostic because of doubts that developed later due to accidental “discoveries” and nagging questions on imposed doctrines. This is the reason why, we find former priests who have made a total 360-degree turnaround in their life by discarding their priestly garb and decided to raise a family. There are also some people who do not belong to any religion, but have strong faith in God….manifesting the idea that belief in God does not necessarily mean belonging to any religious group. Still, there are some who do not believe in God but are more like Christ in their action.
Whatever is the philosophy of others, it is important that they be respected for it, for as long as they don’t use it in hurting others. We should not force our belief to others, especially, verbally. “Good” and “bad” are self-explanatory and universal. If we believe that we are doing the good thing, we should SHOW it through our actions and just hope that others will notice and emulate us. What is bad, we should avoid doing. I don’t think that is hard to do.
War is one grave result of clashing philosophies….